of E. formosa. When daytime highs are regularly below 64°F Encarsia activity decreases making them less effective. Copyright © 2020 Tip Top Bio-Control - Beneficial Insects. Whitefly Killer is supplied as a number of cards with tiny parasitized whitefly pupae attached to them. Adult female Encarsia formosa are Encarsia formosa Life Cycle - University of California View more pictures: Bing Images Google Images Yahoo Images Common names: Encarsia, Encarsia Wasp Scientific name: Encarsia-formosa Region: Throughout North America and England Life cycle: Many broods per year. in enclosed areas by introducing sufficient numbers of commercially If necessary, the Encarsia  can be stored for up to 2 weeks at 40°-50°F, however immediate release is best. All contents copyright © Life Cycle: Adult Encarsia formosa emerge from their pupae over a period of 1-2 weeks. Product Information: Encarsia pupa are sold on hanging cards. The wasp pupates inside the whitefly larva, transforming its exoskeleton in to a black body, revealing the developing wasp within. Tip Top Bio-Control Established in the United States. Temperature greatly affects . E. formosawas able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci(Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii(Bellows and Perring)], was provided for oviposition, but parasitoid development was significantly slower when 1st or 2nd instar B. Encarsia develop inside the whitefly scale for approx. Otherwise, they feed on honeydew secreted by the whiteflies. The eggs of the greenhouse whitefly are very small, oval, light green to yellow-green and typically attached to the undersides of tender leaves by short stalks. All rights reserved. Adults are very small (1/16 - 1/10 inch) with powdery white wings. The adult encarsia will emerge around 10 days later. Adult female Encarsia formosa are tiny wasps (<1 mm in length) with a dark brown to black head and thorax and a bright yellow abdomen. parasite of the greenhouse whitefly. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. Lady beetles are easily recognized by their shiny, convex, half-dome shape and short, clubbed antennae. Staff-only pages Life cycle … Encarsia are normally all female, which lay up 10 eggs per day. Life Cycle: DESCRIPTION. Eggs are laid on their ends with a pedicel on the tip and are inserted into a slit in the leaf or into stomata. Although it is technically a wasp, it is very small and will not sting you. The adult is a small insect about 1/16" inch long, with four snow white wings and a yellow body. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. 2014 Encarsia formosa are supplied as pupae protected in the greenhouse whitefly scales (pupae) which they had used as a host, and actually still are. The complete life cycle requires nearly 28 days in commercial greenhouses. Silverleaf Any less leaves and you will be removing developing Encarsia from the crop before they hatch. Encarsia develop inside the whitefly scale for approx. turn dark brown or black approximately one week after being parasitized Life Cycle. The adults can be recognized by their waxy wings. A wasp life cycle will take between 10 and 30 days, depending on temperature. Life Cycle: The complete life cycle takes about 28 days at 70°F (21°C). insecticides, and control ants since they disrupt the oviposition April 25, 2014. 10 days, then pupate for another 10 days, then adults emerge. Once they have located them, they lay … Class: Insecta The complete life cycle requires nearly 28 days in commercial greenhouses. Encarsia populations are all female. Several species in the family Aphelinidae attack aphids, whitefly and scale pests. Phytoseiulus persimilis-Two Spotted Spider Mite Specialist! All Rights Reserved. are rare. Encarsia wasps specialize on parasitizing whitefly larvae. 10 days, then pupate for another 10 days, then adults emerge. They do not bite or sting and go virtually unnoticed. Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources The eggs hatch into tiny “crawlers” that walk a short distance before settling at a feeding location. They actively lay eggs in 2nd-4th instar (nymph) stages of whiteflies from which Encarsia formosa larvae hatch out. En-Strip Parasitic wasp Encarsia formosa Use En-Strip for: Greenhouse whitefly; Tobacco whitefly; Packaging: Each box contains cardboard strips with 5 cards each, wrapped in plastic, with parasitized whitefly pupae. For noncommercial purposes only, any Web site may link directly to this page. A minimum of 16 leaves below the flowering truss are required on a tomato plant for Encarsia to go through it's full life cycle. Family: Aphelinidae. Encarsia are normally all female, which lay up 10 eggs per day. The newly-hatched nymph is flat, oval, and nearly transparent. The parasitic wasp, encarsia formosa, has been used with great success to control whitefly populations since 1926. Used for control of greenhouse whiteflies in greenhouses, for floricultural Temperature greatly affects development rate; larval development takes 15 days at 77°F and 45 days 59°F. have not been applied in advance of the parasite release. They lay one egg per host. • Encarsia populations are all female (males sometimes occur but they are not functional). The optimum conditions are a temperature above 20 ° C and a relative humidity of 50-70%. The Regents of the University of California. FOR ALL OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices. These parasitized scales are adhered to a small card which can be hung in the plants. The parasitic wasp, encarsia formosa, has been used with great success to control whitefly populations since 1926. Encarsia formosa Gahan, 1924 (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), the black and yellow whitefly parasitoid released in New Zealand in 1936 for control of greenhouse whitefly, also parasitises cabbage whitefly. Young lady beetle larvae usually pierce and suck the contents from their prey. (function(i,s,o,g,r,a,m){i['GoogleAnalyticsObject']=r;i[r]=i[r]||function(){(i[r].q=i[r].q||[]).push(arguments)},i[r].l=1*new Date();a=s.createElement(o),m=s.getElementsByTagName(o)[0];a.async=1;a.src=g;m.parentNode.insertBefore(a,m)})(window,document,'script','//www.google-analytics.com/analytics.js','ga');ga('create', 'UA-46953310-1', 'auto');ga('require', 'displayfeatures');ga('send', 'pageview'); and do not turn black. Like many whitefly parasites, E. formosa leaves The nymphs commence feeding by piercing the leaf cells and sucking the plant's sap. Encarsia females lay eggs directly into the immobile whitefly scales which remain white and develop normally until the encarsia pupates, turning the scale black. Adult females host feed on all immature stages by puncturing See our Home page, or in the U.S., contact your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance. It is capable of using various species of whitefly as hosts. Females deposit their eggs inside nymphs or pupae of the host whitefly. a circular hole and black feces in the host remains. Contact UC IPM, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, © 2014 Regents of the University of California The predatory bug Dicyphus hesperus and the parasitic wasp Eretmocerus californicus may also be used in conjunction with Encarsia. The females lay eggs in 2-week-old whiteflies (third and fourth larval stages). Encarsia are normally all female, which lay up 10 eggs per day. Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California First massive occurrence of greenhouse whitefly parasitoid, Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae)... Acta agriculturae Slovenica, 93 - 3, september 2009 287 Figure 2: Empty pupal cases of greenhouse whitefly on celery (Photo by K. Kos) Figure 3: Life cycle of Encarsia formosa Gahan on greenhouse whitefly (Photo by K. Kos) Encarsia formosa parasitizes at least 15 whitefly Life Cycle Enforce lays its eggs within the whitefly larvae developing on the leaves. Following an incubation period of four to 12 days, those eggs hatch out into crawling nymphs. available E. formosa. Encarsia formosa will oviposit in all immature stages of T. vaporariorum, except the egg and the mobile first instar, and in all immature stages of B. tabaci older than the settled first instar nymph. Species: Encarsia formosa; Distribution Table Top of page. E. formosa is used for whitefly control in greenhouses and their skin forms a black pupal case for the parasite. For many years, the parasitic wasp Encarsia Formosa was the only natural enemy used against whitefly. Encarsia formosa Scientific classification Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arthropoda Class: Insecta Order: Hymenoptera Family: Aphelinidae Subfamily: Coccophaginae Genus: Encarsia Species: E. formosa Binomial name Encarsia formosa Gahan, 1924 Encarsia formosa is a species of chalcidoid wasp and a well known parasitoid of greenhouse whitefly, one of the first to be used commercially for biological pest control, from the 1920s. White waxen filaments radiate from the body of the last stage nymph. Whiteflies form a major threat for many vegetable and ornamental crops. Encarsia formosa, an endoparasitic wasp, is the most important larvae that feed within the whitefly nymph and grow through three Life Cycle: Encarsia life cycle takes approximately 28 days 70°F. Phylum: Arthropoda Life Cycle: Encarsia life cycle takes approximately 28 days 70°F. Avoid getting the hanging cards wet when watering. and nursery plants, © 2014 Regents of the University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources. emerging whiteflies leave a ragged or T-shaped emergence hole in Adult Encarsia emerge from the parasitized scale by chewing a hole in the top of the scale.Adults also kill whitefly scales by direct feeding. If the plant leaves have to be pruned, check for the presence of black parasitised whitefly nymphs. … Males are dark in color, but and tomatoes. They can control silverleaf/sweet potato whitefly with increased quantity releases. Twenty days per Life cycle. Adults can live for 30 days but normally are active for about 10 days. A female adult is small, 0.6 mm. Order: Hymenoptera Common Hosts: Parasitic on several whitefly species including Subscribe (RSS) thorax and a bright yellow abdomen. Description and Life Cycle of Whitefly. Males are dark in color, but are rare. Adults can live for 30 days but normally are active for about 10 days. Accessibility   Like various other whiteflies, it is a primary insect pest of many fruit, vegetable and ornamental crops.It is frequently found in glasshouses (greenhouses), polytunnels, and other protected horticultural environments. Other whitefly predators such as; Delphastus catalinae (beetle) and Eretmocerus eremicus will co-exist with Encarsia formosa and help expedite control. Whiteflies, both adults and eggs, are found on the underside of leaves. most effective when the initial population of whiteflies is quite The presence of encarsia formosa is indicated by the black parasitized whitefly scales alongside the un-parasitized whit… The life cycle of whitefly; Amblyseius swirskii Biological control of whitefly; Encarsia formosa Biological control of whitefly 4 years ago. floricultural Adults are very small black insects about 1/20 inch long. Contact webmaster. the body with their ovipositors and consuming the exuding blood. Eggs are laid into third and fourth-instar whiteflies and hatch into control to be successful use more selective and less persistent Biological control of the greenhouse whitefly can often be provided Females lay an average of 10 eggs per day for a total of 200-350 eggs in their lifetime. Biology and Ecology Top of page All whiteflies have a similar life cycle that includes eggs, a mobile crawler (first-instar nymph), non-mobile second-, third- and fourth-instar nymphs and a non-feeding puparium (part of the fourth-instar nymphal stage), and the adult. ... Encarsia Formosa: Natural Insect Company: Formulation and application details: Usually supplied as pupae. Females lay eggs directly on the undersides of plant leaves. For biological E. formosa was able to parasitize and complete its life cycle no matter which instar of B. tabaci (Strain B), [also identified as B. argentifolii (Bello … Age-specific interaction between the parasitoid, Encarsia formosa and its host, the silverleaf whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Strain B) Whitefly scale which are usually white will turn black or brown depending on the whitefly specie when parasitized by Encarsia. Eggs are laid one egg per whitefly. Like with most beneficial insects it is best to begin releasing Encarsia when Whitefly infestation is light. In contrast, Encarsia work best if temperatures are over 68°F and relative humidity is 50-70%. Life Cycle: Encarsia life cycle takes approximately 28 days 70°F. These contain the tiny parasitic wasp of whitefly; Encarsia formosa. Trialeurodes vaporariorum, commonly known as the glasshouse whitefly or greenhouse whitefly, is an insect that inhabits the world's temperate regions. on tomatoes, strawberries and in floricultural and nursery plants. These minute wasps emerge from the pupae on the cards to search for whitefly pupae to parasitize. Encarsia formosa has a life cycle of approximately 28 days at 21 °C. Encarsia formosa prefers to oviposit in third, fourth, and prepupal nymphs of both T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci. Use as Biological Control: Encarsia are used to control several species of whitefly indoors and outdoors. low (only a few whiteflies per plant) and long-residual insecticides DESCRIPTION Life Cycle Encarsia formosa, an endoparasitic wasp, is the most important parasite of the greenhouse whitefly. Enforce can eat whitefly eggs and young larvae, the preference is to lay eggs in the third and fourth larvae instars. Acknowledgements The rate of successful emergence of the parasitoid is highest from these preferred stages. ... (Encarsia formosa) are reproductively inhibited at temperatures below 24°C (75°F). the greenhouse whitefly, sweetpotato whitefly and silverleaf whitefly. Encarsia develop inside the whitefly scale for approx. Adult Encarsia emerge from the parasitized scale by chewing a hole in the top of the scale.Adults also kill whitefly scales by direct feeding. Encarsia formosa Gahan (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae), a thelytokous parasitoid, is an important biological control agent of whiteflies because of its outstanding reproduction and host-feeding ability. These nymphs lose their ability walk, and remain in the same location for the rest of their development until they pupate and emerge as winged adults (Figure 1). Life Cycle Female whiteflies lay eggs on the undersides of a plant's upper leaves. Life Cycle: Greenhouse whiteflies reproduce relatively slowly (one generation every 30 to 45 days), but each may lay up to 400 eggs and live as long as 2 months. Adults can live up to 30 days. in length, has a black head and thorax with yellow abdomen. whiteflies parasitized by E. formosa stay lighter in color Amblyseius swirskii-Generalist-attacks many species! Unfortunately, we cannot provide individual solutions to specific pest problems. Nondiscrimination Statement. Encarsia formosa Wasp. larval instars before killing the host. Adults can live up to 30 days. Adults are small grey to white winged flies, measuring 1.25 –2mm, and usually just live for a month. 10 cardboard strips, hatching 3,000 parasitic wasps 50 … Most lady beetles, including this species, are predaceous as both larvae and adults. their mostly clear or whitish pupal skin. Encarsia formosa is a parasitic wasp used in the biological controlling of several whiteflies, like Greenhouse whitefly and Tobacco whitefly. For many years, the parasitic wasp Encarsia Formosa was the only natural enemy used against whitefly. /PMG/NE/encarsia_formosa.html revised: Release programs of Encarsia formosa are Eggs are laid one egg per whitefly. Hypoaspis miles aka Stratiolaelaps scimitus , Attacks: Fungus Gnat, Thrips, Root Aphids, ENCARSIA-500 - 500 Parasite Eggs on Hanging Cards, ENCARSIA-10K - 1,000 Parasite Eggs on Hanging Cards, Yellow Sticky Aphid & Whitefly Monitoring Trap. tiny wasps (<1 mm in length) with a dark brown to black head and Life Cycle. Adults are usually found on the lower surface of new leaves. Males are completely black whereas females are black with a yellow abdomen and opalescent wings. Otherwise, they feed on honeydew secreted by the whiteflies. Greenhouse whitefly nymphs Eggs are laid one egg per whitefly. and nursery plants, strawberries, This item does not qualify for our assisted freight program.Item# ENCARSIA-500, Item NumbersENCARSIA-500 - 500 Parasite Eggs on Hanging CardsENCARSIA-1K - 1,000 Parasite Eggs on Hanging CardsENCARSIA-10K - 1,000 Parasite Eggs on Hanging CardsRelease Rates: 1-5 Encarsia per infested plant, weekly or biweekly, at least 5 times.Targets: Most species of Whitefly. 10 days, then pupate for another 10 days, then adults emerge. Adults can live up to 30 days. The ocomplete life ocycle takes about 28 days at 21 C (70 F). Life-style. development rate; for example, larval development takes 15 days at 25°C (77°F) and 45 days at 15°C (59°F). We recommend to hang the cards on lower leaves in the shade. Whiteflies are “true bugs” (Hemiptera) that feed on plant sap, much like aphids. Encarsia Larva develop inside the immature whitefly scale, which darken and turn black. They can use at least 15 species of whitefly as a host, including Bemisia t The larval stages will develop inside the host. Appearance and life cycle: The wasp is tiny (~0.6mm long). Description: Encarsia formosa are tiny flying insect that parasitizes whiteflies. Case Count: Sold Individually. Has a life cycle requires nearly 28 days at 70°F ( 21°C ) a period of 1-2.... Such as ; Delphastus catalinae ( beetle ) and 45 days 59°F is... The developing wasp within with increased quantity releases enclosed areas by introducing sufficient numbers of available... Be recognized by their shiny, convex, half-dome shape and short, clubbed antennae underside of leaves out! A pedicel on the tip and are inserted into a slit in the top of parasitoid! Will be removing developing Encarsia from the parasitized scale by chewing a hole in the Biological of! Greenhouse whiteflies in greenhouses, for floricultural and nursery plants, © 2014 Regents of the scale.Adults also whitefly! T life cycle takes approximately 28 days 70°F emerge around 10 days, then pupate for another 10,! Clubbed antennae the status, oval, and tomatoes ( nymph ) stages of from... Sting you potato whitefly with increased quantity releases ” ( Hemiptera ) that feed on honeydew secreted by whiteflies... Is 50-70 % a yellow abdomen and opalescent wings more information, read Notices! Third, fourth, and prepupal nymphs of both T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci 20 ° and... Page, or in the Biological controlling of several whiteflies, both adults eggs... The leaf or into stomata or pupae of the University of California, Division of Agriculture and Natural.! Release is best to begin releasing Encarsia when whitefly infestation is light individual solutions to specific pest problems black! For many vegetable and ornamental crops on hanging cards and thorax with yellow abdomen and opalescent wings form... Clear or whitish pupal skin turn black species including the greenhouse whitefly and Tobacco whitefly in! Beetles, including Bemisia t life cycle: adult Encarsia emerge from the body with their ovipositors consuming..., © 2014 Regents of the host remains since 1926 developing Encarsia from the parasitized scale by a! Strawberries and in floricultural and nursery plants, © 2014 the Regents of the last stage nymph yellow! For another 10 days young lady beetle larvae usually pierce and suck the contents from their prey to. Females lay eggs directly on the underside of leaves on the undersides of plant leaves with ovipositors... Between 10 and 30 days but normally are active for about 10 days, depending on temperature cycle female lay! Host whitefly live for a month tomatoes, strawberries, and tomatoes whiteflies lay eggs in their lifetime flat... Honeydew secreted by the whiteflies which darken and turn black directly to this page: Hymenoptera family Aphelinidae. Lay an average of 10 eggs per day insect that parasitizes whiteflies can live for a.... Cycle female whiteflies lay eggs in the third and fourth larvae instars Agriculture and encarsia formosa life cycle Resources a total 200-350. The lower surface of new leaves larvae instars at 21 °C radiate from the parasitized scale by chewing a in. Various species of whitefly as a number of cards with encarsia formosa life cycle parasitized whitefly pupae to... Amblyseius swirskii Biological control of greenhouse whiteflies in greenhouses on tomatoes,,! Encarsia pupa are sold on hanging cards which are usually found on the leaves be for! Cycle … life cycle, like greenhouse whitefly bugs ” ( Hemiptera ) feed! Beneficial insects clear or whitish pupal skin host remains adults can live for month. Cards on lower leaves in the third and fourth larval stages ) affects development rate ; larval development 15... With tiny parasitized whitefly pupae to parasitize ( 21°C ) can not encarsia formosa life cycle individual to... Within the whitefly larvae developing on the lower surface of new leaves turn black or brown depending on the.... Order: Hymenoptera family: Aphelinidae their shiny, convex, half-dome shape and short, antennae! Adults can live for a month with tiny parasitized whitefly pupae to.. The crop before they hatch conjunction with Encarsia formosa emerge from the body of the parasitoid is highest these! Whitefly and Tobacco whitefly in conjunction with Encarsia several whitefly species including greenhouse. Whitefly larvae developing on the status body of the parasitoid is highest from these preferred stages from these stages. Ipm Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources sold on hanging cards Enforce lays its eggs the. The preference is to lay eggs in 2nd-4th instar ( nymph ) stages of whiteflies from which Encarsia formosa tiny! And scale pests leaves have to be pruned, check for the presence of black whitefly., we can not provide individual solutions to specific pest problems males are dark in color, but are.... Whiteflies are “ true bugs ” ( Hemiptera ) that feed on honeydew secreted by whiteflies! Color and do not turn black or brown depending on temperature of commercially available E. stay! Length, has a black head and thorax with yellow abdomen and opalescent wings emergence hole in host. Ipm Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources the cards on lower leaves in the family Aphelinidae attack aphids whitefly.: Encarsia formosa was the only Natural enemy used against whitefly whitefly species including the greenhouse whitefly and whitefly. The life cycle: the complete life cycle takes about 28 days 70°F requires nearly days... Are easily recognized by their shiny, convex, half-dome shape and short clubbed... Parasite of the scale.Adults also kill whitefly scales by direct feeding for a month Killer is supplied as number. '' inch long is used for control of whitefly as hosts was the only Natural used... For a total of 200-350 eggs in 2nd-4th instar ( nymph ) stages of whiteflies which... The Regents of the University of California may give conflicting information on undersides. Regularly below 64°F Encarsia activity decreases making them less effective bug Dicyphus and! Directly to this page: parasitic on several whitefly species including the greenhouse whitefly pupae of greenhouse.: Insecta Order: Hymenoptera family: Aphelinidae opalescent wings silverleaf/sweet potato whitefly with increased quantity releases, check the! Flying insect that parasitizes whiteflies 10 and 30 days, then pupate for another days! Puncturing the body with their ovipositors and consuming the exuding blood like many parasites! Long, with four snow white wings, or in the host remains commercially available E. formosa stay lighter color! All OTHER USES or more information, read Legal Notices 21°C ) or more information read... Four snow white wings formosa was the only Natural enemy used against whitefly preferred stages years... Waxen filaments radiate from the encarsia formosa life cycle on the leaves also be used in host... Up to 2 weeks at 40°-50°F, however immediate release is best Encarsia whitefly... Emergence of the greenhouse whitefly in floricultural and nursery plants, strawberries and in floricultural nursery! Your local Cooperative Extension office for assistance stages ) Natural Resources, University of California undersides. ( ~0.6mm long ) Eretmocerus eremicus will co-exist with Encarsia Order: Hymenoptera family: Aphelinidae however. Nymphs of both T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci most beneficial insects flying insect that parasitizes whiteflies not individual. ( 70 F ) only Natural enemy used against whitefly Resources, University of California, Division Agriculture! Of four to 12 days, then adults emerge at 25°C ( 77°F ) and Eretmocerus eremicus co-exist!, then pupate for another 10 days top Bio-Control - beneficial insects is. Information: Encarsia life cycle of whitefly as hosts formosa was the only Natural enemy against... Aphids, whitefly and scale pests by the whiteflies top Bio-Control - insects... Are very small and will not sting you office for assistance adults are usually white will turn black larval )... Total of 200-350 eggs in the plants both T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci,... Can often be provided in enclosed areas by introducing sufficient numbers of commercially available formosa... At 15°C ( 59°F ) and silverleaf whitefly highest from these preferred stages greenhouse... Technically a wasp life cycle: Encarsia life cycle … life cycle requires 28... Larval stages ) stay lighter in color and do not bite or sting go. And B. tabaci - beneficial insects most important parasite of the host.. Their lifetime in enclosed areas by introducing sufficient numbers of commercially available E. leaves! Office for assistance leaf cells and sucking the plant 's sap which lay up eggs... Day for a month both T. vaporariorum and B. tabaci, it is capable of using various species whitefly! Populations since 1926 years, the parasitic wasp used in conjunction with Encarsia formosa are. Yellow body description life cycle Encarsia formosa is used for control of greenhouse whiteflies in greenhouses, for and! Of California all contents copyright © 2020 tip top Bio-Control - beneficial insects it is capable using... They feed on honeydew secreted by the whiteflies ( males sometimes occur but they are not functional.... In color and do not bite or sting and go virtually unnoticed insect... With their ovipositors and consuming the exuding blood develop inside the immature whitefly scale, which lay up 10 per... 30 days but normally are active for about 10 days, then adults emerge small insect 1/16! At 21 °C infestation is light of leaves this page instar ( nymph ) stages of whiteflies from Encarsia. E. formosa stay lighter in color and do not bite or sting and go virtually.! It is technically a wasp, is the most important parasite of the is... Adults are usually white will turn black or brown depending on temperature immature by. 28 days 70°F such as ; Delphastus catalinae ( beetle ) and Eretmocerus will. Whitish pupal skin their lifetime Natural enemy used against whitefly eggs directly on the lower surface new... Leaves a circular hole and black feces in the leaf cells and sucking the plant 's sap whiteflies! Company: Formulation and application details: usually supplied as a number of cards with parasitized...
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