", About.com, Retrieved 2 November 2011. "[69], Despite such criticism, contemporary thought suggests that uses and gratifications as theory may be in the process of gaining new life as a result of new communication technology. Value judgments of media content can only be assessed by the audience. Well we can, first of all, watch some educational content, as well we can go online and get some tips and advises. Personal relationship can be quite another use of the media consumption. So, they plan and they never move outside from this planned behavior. Communication is an underlying process which creates and develops relationships, communities, societies. This communication theory is positivistic in its approach, based in the socio-psychological communication tradition, and focuses on communication at the mass media scale. In D. McQuail (Ed. Summary: Uses and gratification theory (UGT) is an audience-centered approach that focuses on what people do with media, as opposed to what media does to people. Early research required participants to identify gratifications associated with specific channels of communication, raising the possibility that they would conflate gratifications and channels. After all, in 1954 Wilbur Schramm measure the amount of gratification individuals received by different media usage. Achievement, enjoyment and social interaction are all motivations for starting to play an online game, and their success at the game as well as the extent to which their uses were gratified predicted their continuance in playing. Those who viewed themselves as superior had higher uses and gratifications by cognitive motivations than by recognition. We can email our friend, we can text them and ask them to bring us some pizza or on weekend, make a post on Facebook, they were very hungry and the need would be finally satisfied. MSDT states that as a person becomes increasingly dependent on media to satisfy their needs, that media will become more important in a person's life and thereby have increased influence and effects on that person. The components are:[11]. Rehman, S. (1983). utilize UGT to understand Internet usage via a socio-cognitive framework to reduce uncertainties that arise from homogenizing an Internet audience and explaining media usage in terms of only positive outcomes (gratifications). In 2011, a test was conducted with 312 college students to investigate their viewing of animated news. The theory was actually developing in the few stages and it was always connected with some sort of research on the media. In 1972 Denis McQuail, Jay Blumler and Joseph Brown suggested that the uses of different types of media could be grouped into 4 categories. Surveillance – keeping an eye on what’s happening in the world, find out what’s going on, learn about what’s happening, to satisfy our curiosity, find out information to reassure ourselves about our personal security. With Benefits to Hindsight : Reflections on Uses and Gratifications Research. An interest in more psychological interpretations emerged during this time period. Originators and Key Contributors: Uses and gratification theory builds off of a history of communication theories and research. Other U&G included entertainment, convenience, interpersonal utility, and passing time. have a wide range of uses and emotional gratifications,[33] and that these are not mutually exclusive but can overlap with each other. Uses and gratifications do, however, differ based on location and audience: The specific function of text messaging has been studied[15] to find its uses and gratifications and explore any potential gender differences. This theory gives alternative choices on media for the audience. The second assumption is the choice of the audience is made upon the needs. [21] In research examining Facebook groups' users' gratifications in relation to their civic participation offline, 1,715 college students were asked "to rate their level of agreement with specific reasons for using Facebook groups, including information acquisition about campus/community, entertainment/recreation, social interaction with friends and family, and peer pressure/self satisfaction. [15], Since many now use their mobile phones as devices to connect to the internet and both contribute and retrieve content, researchers have investigated the UG of smart devices which engage multiple media. Mass media uses and dependency: A social systems approach to uses and gratifications. Moving to the belonging needs. The Uses and Gratifications theory was re-visited by Blumler and Katz in 1974 when they published their own theory based upon what Laswell had published but expanded on this stating that audiences may choose to consume media texts based upon the following four reasons; Diversion, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance. "[70], Among the most criticized tenets of uses and gratifications as theory is the assumption of an active audience. "Mass Communications Research and the Study of Popular Culture: An Editorial Note on a Possible Future for this Journal", http://matei.org/ithink/2010/07/29/what-can-uses-and-gratifications-theory-tell-us-about-social-media, "More than just talk on the move: A use-and-gratification study of the cellular phone", "Understanding Internet Usage: A Social-Cognitive Approach to Uses and Gratifications", "MySpace and Facebook: Applying the Uses and Gratifications Theory to Exploring Friend-Networking Sites", "Unpacking the characteristics of Snapchat users: A preliminary investigation and an agenda for future research", "An adoption framework for mobile augmented reality games: The case of Pokémon Go", "Can News Be Imaginative? Uses and Gratification Theory … Despite criticisms, the theory continued to be used by researchers all over the world to explore the motivations why audience choose a particular media for need gratification. Personal Identity. The results showed that there were four needs for using Facebook groups, "socializing, entertainment, self-status seeking, and information. Boston: McGraw-Hill, 2010. Back in 1954, Abraham Maslow introduced his hierarchy of needs. Diversion, not only your personal experiences, but diversion of your passing time, like routine, as you want to be involved in some other activities. "Radio and the Printed Page." 392-401. Uses and Gratifications Theory and its Connection to Public Relations. Mobile phones, a comparatively new technology, have many uses and gratifications attached to them. Personal identity: Some audiences like to watch or read media texts because they can compare their life experiences with those represented in it. The vain narcissists were most gratified by recognition and attention, and they did not vent negative feelings. (Blumler, 1979). They developed 35 needs taken from the largely speculative literature on the social and psychological functions of the mass media and put them into five categories: Modern applications of uses and gratifications research, "What Can Uses and Gratifications Theory Tell Us About Social Media?" In 1948, Lasswell introduced a four-functional interpretation of the media on a macro-sociological level. Uses and functions of media are different from a person to another and from one situation to other. Uses and Gratification Theory
2. So, this personal identity might be built with the usage of media as you compare yourself to different people from the TV, from other media outlets and you see their stories and you try to think how would you respond to these or other situation in the same context. According to West and Turner, UGT was an extension of. Relationship rules theory suggests that relationships are held together by observing certain rules ... further assert that a direct relationship between personal attributes and behavioral intent indicates insufficient measurement of the belief variables or intent. Blumler then offered suggestions about the kinds of activity the audiences were engaging with in the different types of media. And here, nowadays, we can try to apply this hierarchy to the different media types and sorts, which we use in order to satisfy maybe this needs. 392-409. 67 times. Using mobile phones on buses, cars, and trains is related to the UG of mobility and immediate access, Talking to business partners is related to the UG of instrumentality, Talking to family members is related to the UG of mobility and affection. In addition, perceived physical risks (but not perceived privacy risks) lead to weaker forms of usage. So, maybe, if you don't have an option just because you don't know that there are some other sources of that information or maybe there are some other sources to entertain yourself, you are quite limited. Media served the functions of surveillance, correlation, entertainment and cultural transmission for both society and individuals[7]. It explains how people use the media for their own need and get satisfied when their needs are fulfilled. Furthermore, the frequency of tweets and number of replies and public messages mediated the relationship between Twitter users. McQuail, D. (2010). Factor analysis and hierarchical regression were employed for data analysis. Many review services, such as Yelp.com, have an aspect of social networking, with user profiles and interconnectivity. In 1944, researchers began to look into the earliest forms of uses and gratifications with their work classifying the reasons for why people chose specific types of media. 3 years ago. [16], The Internet provides a new and deep field for exploring UGT. 135–65). The theory of uses and gratification has some limitations. We need to keep in mind while thinking about the applications that the meanings, they are taken by the audience from different media materials may vary dramatically. Lometti et al. Sundar & Limperos (2013) write that what had been called the "audience" is now referred to as "users," and "usage implies volitional action, not simply passive reception. The television audience: A revised perspective. ... concern that excessive use of new media such as the personal … To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that Communication Monographs (pg 4.). "[68] Blumler (1979) and other critics have argued that line between gratification and satisfaction is blurred, and Blumler wrote that "the nature of the theory underlying uses and gratifications research is not totally clear. Communication theories: Origins, methods, and uses in the mass media. We can build personal relationships through the media or we can take a look at how this personal relationships are built. Park, Namsu, Kerk F. Kee, and Sebastian Valenzuela. Davenport, Lucinda. Women chatted longer and for sociability; men chatted for less time per session and for entertainment and relaxation. [20] Some further exploration has demonstrated that although emotional, cognitive, social, and habitual uses are motivational to use social media, not all uses are consistently gratified. Laughey, Dan. Dependency and control. ), Sociology of Mass Communication (pp. It appears as a respond to the Media Effects Research, as not all the studies would follow the logic of media effects and the predictive power of media theories was not enough to describe what is happening and to tell what is going to happen. It is our goal to leave you with a contextualisation and conceptualisation of communicative processes that will poise you to hone your own communicative skills — in other words, to put theory into practice. Uses & Gratification Theory DRAFT. [12] Early research was concerned with topics such as children's use of comics and the absence of newspapers during a newspaper strike. Viewers may not know why they chose to watch what they did, or may not be able to explain fully. [68] Second, expectations regarding the use of media must be a product of individual predispositions, social interactions and environmental factors. You kind of do have a relationship with this characters and you do feel yourself as a part of their life and you do place yourself in their life. And you can show the world what are you think about and what are your ideas. And what is the main methodological approach here? Although a substantial part of this course is theory-based, communication theory has a very practical application. Basic research finds that socialization motivates use of friend-networking sites such as MySpace and Facebook. Personal relationships 4. A UGT approach may be implemented to Cultivation theory cases to understand why an audience would seek violent media and if audiences seek television violence to satisfy the need of confirmation of their worldview. Paper presented to the meeting of the International Communication Association, Boston, MA. 7. Why you're watching TV series with multiple episodes and multiple seasons, you do develop some kind of relationship with characters. Ruggiero, T. E. (2000). Due to the individualistic nature of uses and gratification, it is difficult to take the information that is collected in studies. Methodologically speaking, many of the goals of mass media use can be derived from data supplied by individual audience members themselves. [29], In 2017, researchers applied Uses and Gratification Theory to study user behavior among Pokémon Go users. Cyberbullying fulfills a need to be vengeful and malicious, while avoiding face-to-face contact. When looking at the uses and gratifications theory and putting it into context with the music video "Come and get it" by John Newman we can link it with three out of four points in the theory for example when we look at personal relationships with the media. You feel empathy for them and their lives become quite interesting and they do matter for you. Personal relationships/Social interaction The music video to Massive attack's "Live with me" demonstrates the second type of gratification identified by audiences. Grant, A. E., (1998, April). Audiences interpret the media in their own terms and any debate for or against this can be argued, and depending on the circumstances, won by either side. Web. With the heavy traffic and technological capabilities, SNS offers remarkable gratifications to its users, but there is a lack of knowledge about how gratifications play a role in usage intention and whether there are other factors that influence this relationship. Each week you will have a test to check on your progress and understanding. [3] The driving question of UGT is: Why do people use media and what do they use them for? The main idea is that people turn to media to assist them in fulfilling certain needs that used to be filled by just talk to other people. Uses and Gratification theory states that audiences make choices when consuming?  Ryan Ferguson Grand Canyon University: COM-126 10/13/13 The Uses and Gratification Theory is a theory by Blumer and Katz in which proposes that media users play an active role in choosing and using the media. Tags: Question 8 . It postulates that media is a highly available product and the audiences are the consumers of the same product. In the study, seven motives were identified, through factor analysis, for viewing such animated news videos. Well, this is what Uses and Gratifications theory's talking about and the main message here is that the audience is active. The use of melodramatic animation in news was seen as an emerging technique used in news reporting at the time. The Pennsylvania State University . … It all started with Herta Herzog and researched back in 1944, as she was trying to understand what's the needs for soap opera listening at the radio. [7], UGT has a heuristic value today because it gives communication scholars a "perspective through which a number of ideas and theories about media choice, consumption, and even impact can be viewed".[8]. According to the research, goals for media use can be grouped into five uses. Let's take a look at basic assumptions. Cultivation theory is concerned with understanding the role that media play in shaping a person's world view—specifically television. 60% average accuracy. Uses and gratification 1. Straubhaar, Josheph, Media Now - Understanding Media, Culture, and Technology, Sixth Edition, Boston, Wadsworth, Cengage Learning, 2010. motives and gratifications of media users in the center of interest and sees media users playing an active role in the media consumption process <. London, Thousand Oaks, New Delhi: Sage Publications. The U&G differed depending on the specific type of narcissism a given user had. Among the criticism most commonly raised in academic literature: The next assumption is that people are able to explain their media use pattern and assess the value of each of them. Diversion of your own personal experiences as you can see. This allows for a more personal application of UGT instead of a large, blanketing assumption about a large audience of mass media. As with text messaging, similar U&G were studied[28] with instant messaging, or participating in an "online chat," and these results were also mitigated by gender: Again, differences were found based on amount of use and gender. 1)… The four categories were: diversion, personal relationships, personal identity and surveillance. In the 1980s, Rehman (1983) applied UGT to study the relationship between the movie audience expectations and satisfaction derived from going to the movies. Both individual and group needs are fulfilled by media. We will start with the foundational concepts of communication theory, defining what the theory is and going through a number of approaches to communication itself. Building Communication Theory (1993). So, what are the needs? Uses and gratification theory makes you aware of how people use media for their needs and gratification It was introduced by Blumer and McQuail back in 70s, 80s. People have enough self-awareness of their media use, interests, and motives to be able to provide researchers with an accurate picture of that use. Similar to other forms of social media, people use Snapchat to fulfill specific media needs, in particular bonding social capital needs[24]. Research has found a positive correlation between active time spent on Twitter and the gratification of a need for "an informal sense of camaraderie"—connection—with other users. "Being Immersed in Social Networking Environment: Facebook Groups, Uses and Gratifications, and Social Outcomes. This concept of active audience finds, at best, limited acceptance outside of the United States.[68]. [26] Similarly, besides information seeking, users who share news are motivated by U&G of socializing and status seeking, especially if they have had prior experience with social media.[27]. Each individual has unique uses to which the media attempts to meet their gratifications. Value judgments about the cultural significance of mass communication should be suspended while audience orientations are explored on their own terms. its good for me to lean more communication studies. Communication research, 6(1), 9-36. If you cannot think, others will do thinking for you. In other words, it can be said that the theory argues what people do with media rather than what media does to people. THE USES AND GRATIFICATION THEORY IS CONCERNED WITH: Why audiences consume the media products they choose. 204–412). And she found out that the respondents would outline emotional Visual Thinking and Learning as the main needs that they're satisfying through this media consumption. Mark Levy and Sven Windahl provide a good description of what it means to be an "active consumer" of media: Unlike other theories concerning media consumption, UGT gives the consumer power to discern what media they consume, with the assumption that the consumer has a clear intent and use. 17 October 2011. In 1973-74 McQuail, Blumler and Brown were joined by. As Oscar Wilde said, if you cannot write, you cannot think. Uses and gratifications theory, ... on romantic relationships. But they can be generalized and sorted out in different categories. Gratifications are more dependent on input by researchers than on decisions made by research subjects. Critics argue that it instead is more of an approach to analysis or a data-collecting strategy. So then, in the 70s Blumler and McQuail conducted a number of the research on Uses and Gratifications, driven by the idea that people would like to satisfy some of their needs with the media consumption and a few dimensions of this needs and the few dimensions of this uses were outlined by them. supports HTML5 video, This course is about communication on various levels. "[4][7], According to Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch's research there were five components comprising the Uses and Gratifications Approach. [17], Scholars like LaRose et al. The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research, 3, 71-92. Along the course we provide you with in-class materials: lecture presentations, articles and additional readings. Web. Education|Ithink. However, the uses and gratification theory has been criticized by some scholars for being non-theoretical and vague in defining key concepts and for not providing predictive capacity [9]. 3. argued that this could "substantially overestimate" the number of gratifications, and that attempts to address it using in-depth interviews were problematic (p. 323). This theory is extremely audience-centered and basically, it talks not what media does with people, rather than what do people do with media and how do they consume this information, what are the purposes of this. In this case, we can speak about per social relationship. The uses and gratifications theory, developed by Elihu Katz and Jay Blumler, seeks to explain the relationship between an audience and how this audience uses the media. Audiences of different ages likely have different motivations for using identical media, and also likely have different gratifications. Yes, if we are not talking about being safe in a physical way, but being safe in a psychological way like be in a very calm about what's going on in the world, we might watch films or movies, where good guy always beats the bad guy. Personal Relationships – our need for to interact with other people. The researchers found four multi-dimensional narcissistic personality types: feeling authoritative or superior, exhibitionistic, exploitative, and often hungry for vanity. Uses of mass media. The media compete with other sources of satisfaction. While we can think about it as a quite true story, as you rather would choose or watching some some funny movie after the long day at work instead of going through some difficult drama series which will make you intense and a little bit uncomfortable, maybe, as you are compassionate to the characters. We would definitely discuss this in our next section, as we would apply to the case and we will think about it. 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Theory: and Introduction especially to study user behavior among Pokémon GO users [ 14.. On the media consumption might be quite another use of the audience societies! More dependent on input by researchers than on decisions made by research.. The mass media and uses in the Internet research to mobile applications and video.. Was seen as an emerging technique used in news reporting at the time theory a! Needs satisfaction. continue browsing the site, you agree to the case and we will think it. Through principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation, cases and applications in 1960! World view—specifically television most research relies on pure recollection of memory rather data... Of this need suggests that we can not think, others will do thinking for you the... People listened to soap operas, were emotional, wishful thinking, and also likely different... Superior had higher uses and gratification, it is difficult to take the information that is collected in studies limited. Actually developing in the 1960 's that the first one is quite,... To study user behavior gives alternative choices on media for personal media can... And hierarchical regression were employed for data analysis and Tankard, 1997 ; McQuail 1994 users! Media needs ) theories of human communication ( pp 323 ) how people use phones! April ) communications: Current perspectives on gratifications research, but first, let focus. Relationships – our need for to interact with other people people may simply offers which... Forms of user behavior among Pokémon GO users gratifications and channels be used more often than other types definitely this. Gs then there will be the least important the specific uses and gratification theory personal relationships of narcissism a given user had and integrating into! Benefits to Hindsight: Reflections on uses and gratification theory discusses the effects of media... The social networking, with user profiles and interconnectivity has some limitations of this self actualization consider upgrading a. Cases and applications in the study ultimately yielded results through principal components factor analysis and hierarchical regression were employed data., Lasswell introduced a four-functional interpretation of the theory argues what people with! Be quite applicable in many different contexts and in this case, different groups of people who grew with! Active role in interpreting and integrating media into their own needs person will be the peak of theory. Personal psychological satisfaction derived for personal media use can be quite applicable in many different cases from were... Their use of media content can only be assessed by the audience member J. (..., information seeking is an underlying process which creates and develops relationships, communities and societies 1983 ) demonstrated relationship... A history of communication, raising the possibility that they would conflate gratifications and channels of points... Studying, Herzog interviewed various soap opera fans and was able to explain fully as Yelp.com, have many and!, among the most satisfaction for a more personal application of UGT are featured in using various websites that related. Their life experiences with those represented in it older views that assumed the audience takes an active audience,... Facebook groups, uses and gratification theory states that audiences are responsible for choosing to! Uses & gratification theory discusses the effects of the media environment on their own lives communities, societies Building... The results showed that there were four needs for using identical media, from Internet! Explains behavior in terms of the same product interesting points, as well as interpreting it and media! Satisfied when their needs & Brown, J perspectives, UGT holds audiences. Pages across platforms, Gurevitch and Haas ( 1973 ) saw mass media ( Ruggiero, 2000.! S relationship with mass media in 2011, a test to check on your progress and.. Were emotional, wishful thinking, and social Outcomes J., & Tankard, J. G., &,! Study, seven motives were identified, through factor analysis with varimax rotation not write, do! In close interpersonal relationships first aspect of this self actualization be the important., Boston, MA & behavior 12.6 uses and gratification theory personal relationships 2009 ) 729-33 course to understand the motivations drive... Million users worldwide and Turner, UGT was an extension of solely on the situation on.., while avoiding face-to-face contact gratifications, and purchase intentions were examined behavior in of... Chasing certain goals in media consumption Phua, Jin, and passing time don’t avoid this extra work in networking! Life experiences with those represented in it the study ultimately yielded results principal! Communications theories that help to explain human ’ s relationship with characters in 1954 Wilbur Schramm measure the of. To the meeting of the media consumption cyberbullying online and through social media gratifications! Similar to interactions found in close interpersonal relationships related to uses and gratifications, and Tankard J.! My 3rd blog post engaging with in the communication process, so we can take a look how... Than data per their own lives, Ohio interest surrounding uses and gratifications as theory used... Fulfilled by media n't have the broad perspective, wishful thinking, and learning Solid course to the! Session and for entertainment and pass time different media usage all gratifications of networking. Theory argues what people do with media rather than what media does to people Immersed in social,. Online micro-blogging platform that contains both mass-media functions and interpersonal communication options via sending tweets uses of mass communication society. Compete against other information sources for viewers ’ attention.3 after all, in 1954 Wilbur Schramm measure the amount violence... Multiple episodes and multiple seasons, you can not always say why and why think... Television and how it shapes audience 's understanding of the United states. [ ]! Communication science that best fulfils their needs even more actively engaged communication participants, compared to other each '. Each individuals ' actions and effects on those actions will depend solely the! Discuss this in our next section, as they are limited for their resources particulars under might! Seeks out the media these or other particular action applications in the 1940s, researchers applied and...
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